What is Multi-Point Fuel Injection System (MPFI)?

Team CARS24
Team CARS24

Updated on: 2nd February, 2024 IST

What is Multi-Point Fuel Injection System (MPFI)?

While most cars used to have a carburetor until mid-90s, every car on sale today, regardless of its price, features Multi-Point Fuel Injection System (MPFI)

The Multi-Point Fuel Injection or MPFI system is not a new technology even by the Indian market standards. It was in the late 90s that the first mass-market MPFI cars went on sale here, and over time, as the emission norms got more stringent and the carmakers started paying more attention to increasing the efficiency of their vehicles, every car available in the market started coming with this system.

What is Multi-Point Fuel Injection System (MPFI)?

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The Multi-Point Fuel Injection system is a way of injecting the fuel in an internal combustion engine through multiple ports located on the intake valve of every cylinder the motor has. These ports work together to deliver the optimum quantity of fuel at the right time to every cylinder. In all, there are three varieties of MPFI units - Batched, Simultaneous, and Sequential.

In the first kind of Multi-Point Fuel Injection system, the fuel is released to the cylinders by the ports in batches without getting their intake stroke together. In the Simultaneous MPFI systems, the fuel is released in all the cylinders of the engine simultaneously, while in the sequential type, the fuel release is timed to take place at the same time as the intake stroke for each cylinder of the engine.

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Any Multi-Point Fuel Injection system comprises the same set of basic components, which include a fuel pressure regulator, fuel injectors, pressure spring, and a control diaphragm. As we said, the injection system makes use of multiple injectors to introduce fuel in every cylinder. This is done through an intake port located north of the intake valve. The fuel pressure regulator of the MPFI system works in tandem with the fuel rail through an inlet and outlet. Its job is to govern the flow of the fuel, while the control diaphragm and pressure spring regulate the outlet valve's opening and even the amount of fuel that can be returned. The pressure inside an intake manifold of the engine varies significantly as per the speed and load of the engine.

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Advantages of MPFI System

There are many advantages of having a Multi-Point Fuel Injection system over a carburetor setup. The same have been listed below -

Improvement in Fuel Efficiency - These systems make use of multiple fuel injectors for each cylinder which release fuel in measured quantities, thereby reducing the wastage of fuel. This, in turn, increases fuel efficiency and helps the car's owner by reducing maintenance costs.

Lower Carbon emissions - As the vehicles that come with MPFI systems benefit from optimum release and burning of fuel, they have a lower carbon emission than similar vehicles with a carburetor setup. This reduces the pollution caused by tailpipe emissions of the vehicles by a huge degree, which, in turn, has huge benefits for mankind.

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Improvement in Engine Performance - An MPFI system ensures improved performance from the engine as it supplies exactly the required quantity of fuel, which leads to an optimum air-fuel ratio and efficient combustion. It does so by improving the cylinder-to-cylinder distribution of fuel. The accurate distribution of fuel to each cylinder also helps in improving the responsiveness of the engine to the sudden throttle inputs.

Improvement in Engine Refinement - The MPFI system also leads to improvement in the refinement levels offered by the engine as Multi Point Fuel Injection systems tend to have lesser vibrations, and they even have lesser cold start problems owing to improved combustion. The more efficient combustion also leads to improved reliability of the engine.

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